This is an analysis of how gender and sexuality influence HIV risks, transmission, and treatment, with an eye toward the obstacles that community service organizations must overcome in order to provide services successfully. It outlines factors in the following categories: socio-cultural factors, such as gender inequity in marriage, traditional gender roles, and homophobia; economic factors, such as poverty and lack of access to education; political factors, such as inaccurate or ineffective HIV prevention efforts and discriminatory laws; and program and services access factors, such as stigma and lack of access to treatment. Reviews of these factors are followed by recommendations for dealing with them. Throughout the document there are examples of how these issues have impeded HIV prevention and treatment, and examples of successful programs to contend with them. There are also references to useful international legal documents, and a list of key resources at the end of the document. This resource could prove useful for community service organizations seeking to address gender and sexuality issues that arise, as well as for anyone interested in the challenges these issues pose and successful ways to cope with them.
The Center for HIV Law and Policy challenges barriers to the rights and health of people affected by HIV through legal advocacy, high-impact policy initiatives, and creation of cross-issue partnerships, networks, and resources. We support movement building that amplifies the power of individuals and communities to mobilize for change that is rooted in racial, gender, and economic justice.