Evidence Statement: Sexually Transmitted Infections (Screening and Counseling): Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), K.P. Campbell (2006)

Research and Journal Articles

This statement outlines the differences between Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) HIV screening recommendations for individuals who are not at increased risk for HIV infection. While the CDCs 2006 recommendation is that all patients ages 13 to 64 be screened for HIV, the USPSTF makes no recommendation for or against routinely screening adults and adolescents who are not considered to be at increased risk for HIV infection. The USPSTF, whose recommendations are the basis on which insurers generally base coverage policies, also defines increased risk of infection. The statement includes the USPSTF's findings that rapid screening tests accurately test for HIV and that appropriately timed clinical intervention, particularly highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) lead to improved health outcomes for many of those screened. The statement also outlines USPSTF findings for pregnant women, including findings that support prenatal counseling and voluntary testing for pregnant women. Both the CDC and the USPSTF recommend that all pregnant women be screened for HIV. The statement also includes information about HIV transmission, the populations within the United States who are at a greater risk of infection, the economic value in both early diagnosis and prevention of HIV infection, the benefits of counseling services both before and after a screening, and approved methods of screening for HIV.